Definition of Crystal and Crystalline
A crystal is a solid material in which atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in a highly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. This arrangement results in the characteristic geometric shape, symmetry, and optical properties that are unique to crystals. Crystals can form naturally or through human-made processes, such as through cooling and solidification of a liquid, precipitation from a solution, or growing a crystal from a solution. Examples of naturally occurring crystals include quartz, salt, and diamonds, while examples of man-made crystals include semiconductors and other electronic components.
Crystalline refers to the arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions in a repeating pattern that extends in all three dimensions, forming a crystal-like structure. The term “crystalline” is used to describe substances that exhibit some, but not necessarily all, of the properties of a crystal. These substances can range from highly ordered, like a crystal, to partially ordered, with some regions having a crystal-like structure and others having a random arrangement of atoms.
Crystalline substances can occur naturally, such as in the case of crystalline minerals found in rocks, or can be man-made, such as in the case of crystalline polymers used in various industrial applications. The term “crystalline” is often used to describe materials that have a degree of long-range order in their atomic structure, but that may not have the defining properties of a crystal, such as a regular geometric shape or sharp boundaries.
Differences between Crystal and Crystalline
The main differences between crystals and crystallines are their structure, formation, and properties.
Structure: Crystals have a highly ordered and repeating atomic arrangement, while crystalline substances may have a less ordered, but still repeating atomic structure. Crystals have well-defined geometric shapes and sharp boundaries, while crystalline substances may have less well-defined shapes.
Formation: Crystals form through a process of cooling and solidification or through precipitation from a solution. Crystalline substances can form through a variety of processes, including cooling and solidification, precipitation from a solution, or as a result of mechanical or thermal treatment.
Properties: Crystals exhibit a range of unique properties, such as a defined geometric shape, symmetry, and optical properties, due to their highly ordered structure. Crystalline substances exhibit some, but not necessarily all, of the properties of a crystal, and their properties are often dependent on the degree of order in their atomic structure.
Crystals have a highly ordered structure and well-defined properties, while crystalline substances have a partially ordered structure and properties that are dependent on the degree of order in their atomic structure.
Crystal and crystalline are two concepts that describe the arrangement of atoms, molecules, or ions in solids. Crystals have a highly ordered and repeating atomic arrangement, resulting in unique properties such as a defined geometric shape, symmetry, and optical properties. Crystalline substances, on the other hand, have a partially ordered atomic structure and exhibit some, but not necessarily all, of the properties of a crystal. Understanding the key differences between crystal and crystalline is important in a range of fields, including materials science, chemistry, and physics. The concepts of crystal and crystalline help us to better understand the properties and behavior of solids, and their importance in various applications and industries.
Unfortunately, as a language model, I don’t have the capability to provide active links. However, here are a few reliable sources for information on crystals and crystallines:
- Principles of Materials Science and Engineering by William F. Smith and Javad Hashemi
- Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction by William D. Callister and David G. Rethwisch
- Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach by William D. Callister Jr.
- Crystals and Crystal Structures by John Bradford
- Introduction to Solid State Physics by Charles Kittel
These are just a few examples, and there are many other resources available online or in print that provide more in-depth information on the topic.